Sleep is really important to your health, both physically and mentally. However, sleeping well can sometimes be a challenge.
A lack of sleep can cause a range of physical problems. You’re more likely to get high blood pressure, diabetes and be overweight.
If you miss out on a night or two’s sleep, it isn’t harmful. But if your sleepless nights go on for longer, it can really take its toll, and may suggest you have insomnia.
What is insomnia?
Insomnia is when you find it difficult getting to sleep or staying asleep for long enough to feel refreshed the next morning. It can affect your quality of life if you feel tired and find it hard to concentrate during the day.
Symptoms of insomnia
If you have insomnia, it means that despite having the time and opportunity to get enough sleep, you may:
- have difficulty getting to sleep
- difficulty staying asleep (waking up often and finding it hard to get back to sleep)
- wake up early in the morning
- feel tired, irritable and unable to concentrate the next day
You might have such problems for a few weeks (short-term insomnia) or they may carry on for longer (long-term insomnia).
Benefits of getting a good sleep
- Improve your attention and concentration
- Helps with weight loss
- It repair and rebuild muscles
- It rebuild your brain too, as you sleep, your brain begins to organise and process all the information you’ve taken on during the day. It converts your short-term memories into long-term memories
- Keep your heart healthy and your immune system strong
- Reduce your stress levels
How much sleep do I need?
How much sleep you need can vary between people. There isn’t really a strictly ‘normal’ amount. Some people can get by with just a few hours sleep a night, while others need a good eight hours or more. How much sleep you need also tends to get lower with age. In general:
- babies need around 12 to 16 hours sleep each day
- older children need about nine to 12 hours a night
- adults need about 7 to 9 hours sleep each night
If you’re having trouble sleeping, there are some things you can do to give you the best chance of sleeping well. Have a think about how and where you sleep and your sleeping habits.
- Bedroom environment
First, take a look at your bedroom. Check if it’s set up to give you the best chance of a good night’s sleep.
You need to ensure that your bedroom is comfortable. Having a bedroom that’s too hot or too cold can affect your sleep. Manage your heating and layer your bedding to find the right temperature for you. Noise is another thing to consider. A variety of noise – from street sounds and wildlife to a snoring partner – can wake you in the night. Earplugs may help if your partner’s snoring is the cause of your troubles.
Excess light can also affect your sleep so take steps to control it. You might need thicker curtains or blackout blinds if you’re blasted with sunlight in the morning, particularly in the summer time. Or try an eye mask.
- Create a sleep zone
If you work, eat or watch TV in your bedroom, it can be hard to switch off and go to sleep. The light and stimulation from electronic devices can activate parts of your brain and keep you awake. If you have trouble sleeping, it’s even more important not to use electronic devices in the run up to bedtime.
Only use your bedroom for sleep, or to have sex.
A mattress that’s too firm or too soft won’t support you properly and your back or hips may suffer. Aim to replace your mattress every 10 years to get the best support and comfort.
If your mind won’t quieten to let you sleep, a simple way to combat this is to keep a notebook by your bed. If you’re having difficulty dropping off to sleep or you wake up in the night, write down your worries or the things you’re thinking about. This will help to organise your thoughts, rather than going over them in your head.
You might find that practising relaxation techniques before going to bed can distract you from your day and make you feel calm before rest. Try reading, or listening to some relaxing music.
If you really can’t sleep, don’t lie there worrying about it. If you don’t fall asleep within 20 minutes, get up and do something relaxing. Try reading, or listening to some relaxing music or a podcast on guided meditation.
- Eat right and get active
What you eat and drink, and when, will have an impact on your energy levels.
- Caffeine. Drinking tea, coffee or energy drinks in the hours leading up to going to bed may prevent you from dropping off because caffeine is a stimulant. Steer clear of these drinks by mid-afternoon. In the evening, choose to have a caffeine-free herbal tea or a warm, milky drink instead.
- Alcohol. You might think that a glass of wine in the evening will help you nod off. In reality, it can actually interfere with your sleep and will most likely cause you to wake up in the night. If you have trouble sleeping, steer clear of alcohol for at least six hours before you go to bed.
- Heavy meals. If you eat these too late at night, they can also affect how well you sleep. Eat early in the evening rather than late.
Regular exercise is a great way to help you sleep better. It helps relieve stress and anxiety that can disrupt your sleep. Try exercising during the day or early evening. If you do intense exercise too close to bedtime, you may feel overly energised and have trouble getting to sleep.
- Get into a routine
Our bodies can be real sticklers for routine. Try to stick to the following.
- Go to bed and get up at about the same times each day. Although it’s tempting, having a lie-in after a late night will only make it harder to get off to sleep the next night. This is because it resets your sleep cycle and decreases the need to sleep.
- Try not to nap during the day. But if you really feel you have to, keep it short and don’t have a nap after 3pm.
- Establish a regular bedtime routine – this is just as important for adults as children. Take some time out to relax and wind down before you go to bed. Have a soothing bath, sit in a quiet place or read a book for at least half an hour before you go to sleep.
There are a number of talking treatments that can help you to work on sleeping better. Here are some examples.
- Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). This type of talking therapy works on changing unhelpful ways of thinking that can make you more anxious, and stop you from sleeping.
- Sleep restriction. This treatment, which is part of CBT, helps you to go to bed later by limiting the time you spend in bed. Instead of you lying for long periods awake, it restricts the time you spend in bed and hopefully make you sleep quicker and soundly.
- Progressive muscle relaxation. This is a relaxation therapy, which involves tensing and then releasing your muscles, one by one.
When to seek help
If a bad night’s sleep becomes a regular occurrence and it’s affecting your quality of life, see your GP. They’ll discuss your sleeping habits with you and give you advice and support. They might even refer you to see a sleep specialist.